Treatment of hepatitis B infection depends on how active the virus is and whether you are at risk for liver damage such as cirrhosis.
Treatment of short-term (acute) hepatitis B
Treatment depends on whether you:
  • Have been recently infected with the virus.
  • Have the symptoms of an acute infection.
  • Have chronic infection.
If you have not gotten a hepatitis B vaccine and think you may have been exposed to the virus, you should get a shot of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and the first of three shots of the hepatitis B vaccine(What is a PDF document?). It is important to receive this treatment within 7 days after a needle stick and within 2 weeks after sexual contact that may have exposed you to the virus. The sooner you receive treatment after exposure, the better the treatment works.
If you have the symptoms of acute infection, treatment with antiviral medicine usually isn't needed. Home treatment-such as eating well, drinking plenty of fluids, and avoiding alcohol and drugs- usually will relieve your symptoms.
In some cases, you may be given medicine to treat an acute infection. But using medicine usually isn't done unless a person is very sick.
Treatment of long-term (chronic) hepatitis B

Treatment depends on how active the virus is in your body and your chance of liver damage. The goal of treatment is to stop liver damage by keeping the virus from multiplying.
Antiviral medicine is used if the virus is active and you are at risk for liver damage. Medicine slows the ability of the virus to multiply.
Antiviral treatment isn't given to everyone who has chronic hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B: Should I Take Antiviral Medicine for Chronic Hepatitis B?

Follow-up visits

Whether or not you take medicine, you will need to visit your doctor regularly. He or she will do blood tests to check your liver and the activity of the hepatitis B virus in your body.
Some of the tests can find out whether the virus is multiplying in your liver, which would increase your risk of liver damage.
Liver transplant

If you develop advanced liver damage and your condition becomes life-threatening, you may need a liver transplant. But not everyone is a good candidate for a liver transplant.

Skin tanning is quite a common problem, especially during the hot summer days. After returning from a beach holiday, you may feel uncomfortable to return to your work because of the tanned face as well as body. But getting rid of tanning is possible with simple home remedies.

These home remedies will not only help you to remove tanning from your skin but will also help you to get your natural skin color back and provide you with fresh, glowing skin. Exfoliation and scrubbing is the best way to get rid of tanned skin. Exfoliation or scrubbing helps to remove the upper dead skin cells and removing tan provides you with fresh skin.

But be gentle with your skin; over-rubbing or trying to remove all the tan in one attempt can damage your skin. Apply these packs regularly for at least a week on your face, neck, arms, hands and other parts of your body to remove tan and get noticeable results. If you have sensitive skin, use a mild scrub as hard granules can leave rashes on your skin. You can also perform a skin test by first applying the pack on the inner side of your arm.


The most popular and effective home remedy for removal of tan is the use of lemon juice. Lemon juice can be used with other ingredients like cucumber juice, rose water etc. to prepare a face pack or can be cut into half and rubbed directly onto the tanned skin. The citric acid present in lemon juice helps to remove dead skin cells and remove tan. For preparing face pack, mix cucumber juice, lemon juice and rose water together.Apply this pack on your face and other tanned areas. Leave it for 5-10 minutes and then wash with clean water. This is a very gentle scrub as cucumber and rose water have cooling properties. But you should avoid this pack if you have cuts and wounds on your skin as it can cause severe pain.

A pack prepared out of honey and lemon juice is also an effective remedy for removing tan from the skin. Another very popular and age old remedy for removing tan is to make a pack using turmeric, lemon juice and raw milk. Apply this pack on the affected area and let it remain on the skin till the pack dries up. Finally, wash your face with cold water to discover a tan-free, fairer and smoother skin.


Potato is a great remedy for removal of tan from the skin. You just have to rub a slice of potato directly on the tanned area. Potato juice can also be applied on the tanned skin with the help of cotton ball for optimal effect. After applying potato juice on the skin, wait for 10-15 minutes. Wash your face with cold water. Regular use of this pack will remove tan completely and provide you with lighter skin.

Sugar And Glycerin

Prepare a scrub using half cup of sugar, 4-5 drops of glycerin and juice of a lemon. This gentle scrub, besides scrubbing the tanned area, leaves your skin soft and light due to the use of glycerin and lemon juice.


Curd is also a good remedy for removing tan as it is acidic in nature. Add a pinch of turmeric in a bowl of curd and apply on the tanned area. After 20 minutes, wash off with cold water. All the dead skin cells will be removed and your skin complexion will be brighter.

Getting pregnant when you are an ideal healthy weight is much better for you and your baby. If you are overweight and thinking of pregnancy it’s good to address your weight before you start trying to conceive.
The weight may have crept on over the years or you may still be carrying ‘baby weight’ from previous children. Whatever the reason, you’ll have more physical energy and be less at risk of medical problems in pregnancy if you are a healthy weight at the start.

Harder to get pregnant

There’s evidence that being overweight will hamper your efforts to fall pregnant. Being overweight can affect your hormones and ovulation patterns, too.

If you’re in a healthy weight range, with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9, you may have a better chance of becoming pregnant, according to the NHS.
If your BMI is 25 or over, you are overweight. With a BMI of 30 or more, defined as being obese, your chance of a successful conception decreases.
A 2008 study in the Netherlands found that in women who were less fertile than normal, for every BMI value over 29, the chance of pregnancy fell by 4%. That's around the same reduction in fertility as an additional year of age.
Research also shows that the average wait for pregnancy for healthy weight women was 3 months, but being overweight delayed it for up to 8 months.

Risks of being overweight

The higher your BMI the more likely it is that you may develop health problems in pregnancy. With a BMI over 30 you’re 3 times more likely to develop gestational diabetes than women who are below that BMI. Having pregnancy-related diabetes increases your risk of developing diabetes later. Having gestational diabetes will increase the weight of your baby, increasing the risk of a difficult birth for both of you. You also have a greater risk of high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia and blood clots if you are overweight or obese.

"Research suggests that babies whose mothers are overweight during pregnancy are more likely to be overweight themselves, and are at higher risk of serious health conditions later in life such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers," says Helena Gibson-Moore, nutrition scientist and spokesperson for the British Nutrition Foundation.

Lipodystrophy is a problem with the way your body uses and stores fat. It's called "inherited" because you're born with it. It comes from the genes you got from one or both of your parents. It makes you lose the fat under your skin, so it can change the way you look. And it can also cause other changes in your body.
Scientists have learned a great deal about how this disease works. You can't cure it, but with your doctor's help, the right treatment, a low-fat diet, and plenty of exercise, it's something you can live with.
Because fat tissue makes the hormone leptin, people with inherited lipodystrophy often don't have enough of this chemical. Leptin tells your body you've eaten enough and to make insulin. The condition can also make fat build up in places it shouldn't, like the blood, heart, kidneys, liver, and pancreas. This condition causes other problems, too, including diabetes, high cholesterol and triglycerides, and fatty liver disease.
Inherited lipodystrophy is actually a group of related illnesses. The most common are:
  • Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), also called Berardinelli-Seip syndrome
  • Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL)


Researchers have found several genes that cause inherited lipodystrophy. That's why there are different subtypes. Sometimes, just one bad gene from one parent can cause it; sometimes, you must get a gene from each parent.
It’s also possible to have a bad gene but not get the disease.


The two main kinds of inherited lipodystrophy have several subtypes. Each of those has its own specific symptoms. Their severity varies, too.
CGL. Babies look very muscular because they have almost no body fat. Most have a large belly button or a hernia, or bulging, around it. They grow fast and are very hungry. Their skin may be dark, thick, and velvety in places, especially at the neck, armpits, and where their legs meet the trunk of their body.
Infants usually develop an enlarged liver. Young kids have problems controlling their blood sugar and triglyceride levels. Some children will have trouble thinking and learning.

How many calories in a pound?

The most basic way to lose weight is to slash calories. That's Diet 101. But how many do you really have to cut or burn to see results? It’s simple: You can drop a pound a week by trimming 500 calories each day. (Calories burned are based on a 150-pound woman.)
In fact, do a couple of swaps a day and you can drop 10 pounds in 5 weeks! So try these 25 easy tweaks—and get the slim body you want in no time.

Tap your foot

Your skinnier friends are probably fidgeters, who burn up to 350 calories a day just by tapping their feet or being restless.
Try it for a few days. Walk around while you’re on the phone, or tap out a tune with your hands or feet (in the privacy of your own office, of course).
In fact, do a couple of swaps a day and you can drop 10 pounds in 5 weeks! So try these 25 easy tweaks—and get the slim body you want in no time.

Step away from the nuts

Especially if they’re in a big bowl. The bigger the serving bowl, the more you’ll eat, Cornell University researchers say.
Nuts have heart-healthy fats, but they’re also high in calories: 1 handful (about 1 ounce) of oil-roasted mixed nuts has 175 calories; 3 handfuls have 525. Cut out nuts altogether and save more than 500 calories.
Can’t resist ’em? Eat pistachios: 2 handfuls are just 159 calories, and the shelling will slow down your munching.

Don’t eat in front of the TV

You’ll eat up to 288 calories more, according to research from the University of Massachusetts.
Instead, eat at the table, and trade 1 hour of TV for a casual walk. Together, that’s 527 calories burned.

Limit salad toppings

A big salad might seem healthy, but all those goodies on top can make it more calorie-laden than lasagna or fettuccine Alfredo. Cheese crumbles, caramelized nuts, bacon, avocado, dried fruit, croutons, and vinaigrettes can add lots of calories.
Save 500 or more calories by having just one topping, adding flavorful but lower-cal veggies (roasted bell peppers, grilled onions, or mushrooms), and using half the dressing.

Use smaller plates

Swap your 12-inch plate for a 10-inch one. You’ll eat 20 to 25% less—and save up to 500 calories.
You won’t feel any less full, either, researchers say.

Slimming superfoods

So-called superfoods are nutritional powerhouses that help build bones, prevent chronic diseases, improve your eyesight, and even keep your mind sharp. But did you know new evidence suggests these foods can also help you get—and stay—slim?
Read on for the top superfoods for weight loss, and how to pack them into your daily diet!

Black beans

A cup of black beans packs a whopping 15 grams of satisfying protein and doesn't contain any of the saturated fat found in other protein sources, like red meat.


Oats are rich in fiber, so a serving can help you feel full throughout the day. Just a half cup packs 4.6 grams of Resistant Starch, a healthy carb that boosts metabolism and burns fat.


There's no reason to be afraid of eating fats—as long as they're the right fats.
Oleic acid, a compound in avocados' healthy monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), may trigger your body to actually quiet hunger. Stick to a quarter or a half of an avocado and watch that belly fat melt away. The creamy fruit is also packed with fiber and protein.


Lean sources of protein help you feel full without adding fat. However, 50% of women ages 18 to 50 don't know if they get enough of this essential nutrient.
Up your intake with salmon; it's a leaner choice than red meat and is chock-full of MUFAs to boot. A 2001 study found that dieters eating a MUFA-rich diet lost an average of 9 pounds, while their low-fat diet counterparts gained, on average, 6.


Best known for their anti-aging effects, blueberries, while tiny, are a powerful figure-friendly eat: A 1-cup serving sets you back only 80 calories, and helps you feel full with 4 grams of fiber.


Cooked or raw, this cruciferous veggie is well-known for its cancer-preventing powers, but with a punch of filling fiber in less than 30 calories a serving, it's bound to prevent weight problems too.

Brown rice

Brown rice is a heartier, fiber-packed alternative to less-than-super white rice. A half-cup serving contains 1.7 grams of Resistant Starch, a healthy carb that boosts metabolism and burns fat.
Plus, brown rice is a low-energy-density food, meaning it's heavy and filling but low in calories. One study found that women who ate a higher-energy-density diet gained three times as much weight over six years than women eating a low-energy-density diet.


Just one pear packs 15% of your daily recommended amount of fiber. One study found that women who ate three pears a day consumed fewer calories and lost more weight than those who didn't. Ditch the peeler though; the skin is where all that filling fiber is hiding!


Resveratrol, the famed antioxidant found in grape skin, stops fat storage. Studies show that moderate wine drinkers have narrower waists and less belly fat than liquor drinkers. Downing a glass can boost your calorie burn for a good 90 minutes.


Even if you changed nothing else about your diet, eating half a grapefruit before each meal may help you lose up to a pound a week!
A compound in the tangy fruit can lower insulin, a fat-storage hormone, and that can lead to weight loss. It's also a good source of protein, and because it's at least 90% water, it can fill you up so you eat less.

Diet and workout tips that work

We all want to be our fittest selves, but with so much advice floating around out there, it can be hard to hone in on what healthcare tips actually work. To make your life a bit easier, we’ve rounded up a number of our go-to healthy strategies, to help you reach your most ambitious fitness goals even quicker.

Say hello to H20

Whether you're heading off to spin class, boot camp, or any other exercise, it's always important to hydrate so you can stay energized and have your best workout. Electrolyte-loaded athletic drinks, though, can be a source of unnecessary calories, so "drinking water is usually fine until you're exercising for more than one hour," says Newgent. At that point, feel free to go for regular Gatorade-type drinks (and their calories), which can give you a beneficial replenishment boost. But worry not if you like a little flavor during your fitness: There are now lower- cal sports drinks available, adds Newgent, so look out for 'em in your grocery aisles.

Find the best fitness friend

A workout buddy is hugely helpful for keeping motivated, but it's important to find someone who will inspire—not discourage. So make a list of all your exercise-loving friends, then see who fits this criteria, says Andrew Kastor, an ASICS running coach: Can your pal meet to exercise on a regular basis? Is she supportive (not disparaging) of your goals? And last, will your bud be able to keep up with you or even push your limits in key workouts? If you've got someone that fits all three, make that phone call.

Stock up on these

While there are heaps of good-for-you foods out there, some key ingredients make it a lot easier to meet your weight-loss goals. Next grocery store run, be sure to place Newgent's top three diet-friendly items in your cart: balsamic vinegar (it adds a pop of low-cal flavor to veggies and salads), in-shell nuts (their protein and fiber keep you satiated), and fat-free plain yogurt (a creamy, comforting source of protein). "Plus, Greek yogurt also works wonders as a natural low-calorie base for dressings and dips—or as a tangier alternative to sour cream," says Newgent. Talk about a multitasker!

Relieve those achy muscles

After a grueling workout, there's a good chance you're going to be feeling it (we're talking sore thighs, tight calves). Relieve post-fitness aches by submerging your lower body in a cold bath (50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit; you may have to throw some ice cubes in to get it cold enough) for 10 to 15 minutes. "Many top athletes use this trick to help reduce soreness after training sessions," says Andrew Kastor. And advice we love: "An athlete training for an important race should consider getting one to two massages per month to help aid in training recovery," adds Kastor. Now that's speaking our language!

Curb your sweet tooth

Got a late-night sugar craving that just won't quit? "To satisfy your sweet tooth without pushing yourself over the calorie edge, even in the late night hours, think 'fruit first,'" says Jackie Newgent, RD, author of The Big Green Cookbook. So resist that chocolate cake siren, and instead enjoy a sliced apple with a tablespoon of nut butter (like peanut or almond) or fresh fig halves spread with ricotta. Then sleep sweet, knowing you're still on the right, healthy track.

Buy comfy sneaks

You shouldn't buy kicks that hurt, bottom line! "Your shoes should feel comfortable from the first step," says Andrew Kastor. So shop in the evening—your feet swell during the day and stop in the late afternoon, so you want to shop when they're at their biggest. Also make sure the sneaks are a little roomy—enough so that you can wiggle your toes, but no more than that. They should be comfy from the get-go, but Kastor says they'll be even more so once you have a good 20 to 40 miles on 'em.

Pick your perfect tunes

Running with music is a great way to get in a groove (just make sure it's not blasting too loudly, or you won't hear those cars!). To pick the ultimate iPod playlist, think about what gets you going. "I know several elite athletes that listen to what we'd consider 'relaxing' music, such as symphony music, while they do a hard workout," says Andrew Kastor. So don't feel like you have to download Lady Gaga because her tunes are supposed to pump you up—go with any music that you find uplifting.

When to weigh

You've been following your diet for a whole week. Weigh to go! Now it's time to start tracking your progress (and make sure pesky pounds don't find their way back on). "It's best to step on the scale in the morning before eating or drinking—and prior to plunging into your daily activities," says Newgent. For the most reliable number, be sure to check your poundage at a consistent time, whether daily or weekly.

Police your portions

Does your steak take up more than half your plate? Think about cutting your serving of beef in half. That's because it's best to try and fill half your plate with veggies or a mixture of veggies and fresh fruit, says Newgent, so that it's harder to overdo it on the more caloric dishes (like cheesy potatoes or barbecue sauce–slathered ribs—yum!).

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